which defines a sector of activity, its functioning, its institutions
(e.g. hospital, CPAS (Public Centre for Social Action), etc.).
in which the inhabitants can use a language other than the official
language of the linguistic region to which the commune belongs for their
contacts with the public authorities (e.g. commune located in the French
language region in which it is authorised to use German).
entity competent for matters relating to education, culture, health
policies, social support and, except for in Brussels and in communes
with linguistic facilities, language use. The community legislative act
is the decree.
negotiated and concluded by the Federal Authority and one or more
federated entities, or by the federated entities between them, to
increase their co-operation in a given matter or to clarify the role of
each one. Compulsory co-operation agreements exist in matters where the
law requires that one should be concluded, and optional co-operation
agreements can be decided on the initiative of the parties concerned.
set of laws which determine the rights and freedoms of the citizens, the
different types of powers (legislative, executive, judicial) and the
different levels of political power in Belgium.
name formally given to the legislative assemblies of the Regions and Communities,
now called parliaments.
standard adopted by the Community or Regional parliamentary assemblies
(except for the Region of Brussels-Capital).
which accomplishes the acts necessary for the application of laws and
which manages the public services. It is attributed to the governments,
sometimes called colleges.
power made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate, the
Government and the King, who exercises his competencies over the entire
territory of the Belgian State.
in which a part of the legislative competencies are exercised by
autonomous powers other than the central power.
which make up a Federal State (e.g.: the cantons in Switzerland, the Länder
in Germany, etc.). In Belgium, there are eight federated entities that
have legislative power: the three Communities, the three Regions, the
French Community Commission and the Joint Community Commission.
competent for community matters concerning French-language institutions
in the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital. The COCOF
has the power to issue decrees (legislative power) for matters
transferred to it by the French Community.
associations who work together to provide a service (distribution of
water, energy, etc.) to their inhabitants.
which ensures that laws are enforced and complied with in disputes. It
is comprised of courts and tribunals.
counselling and protective functions exercised by one public institution
over another public institution, or over certain of its actions, or over
a public establishment.
which drafts laws or other legal standards of the same level (decrees in
Wallonia). This power is attributed to the Parliaments and is shared in
Belgium by the Governments of the different levels of power and, at the
federal level, by the King.
homogenous territory resulting from an administrative division of the
country, where the use of languages for contacts with public
authorities, as regards administration, the law, education and labour
relations in companies is regulated by decree or law. There are four
linguistic regions in Belgium: three monolingual (French, Dutch, German)
and one bilingual (French-Dutch). Each commune only belongs to one
of an executive power, or of a member of an executive power, intended to
implement an act or a decree.
which sets up social, cultural, health, and education institutions and
takes initiatives or finances them. This is a different role from the
one which consists of legislating in the same domain. An organising
authority can be public or private (as, for example, in the education
concerning either health policies or social support, and which have
constituted one of the Communities’ major areas of competence since
government representative for a province. This is also the highest
official in the province acting as a political power. The governor is
responsible for carrying out various tasks, especially as regards law
entity competent in matters relating to agriculture, foreign trade,
economy, employment, energy, the environment, housing, transport, public
works and town planning. The regional legislative act is the decree in
the Walloon and Flemish Regions, and the ordinance in the
law adopted by a special majority: simple majority in each of the two
linguistic groups (on condition that the majority of their members are
present) and majority of two thirds of the votes cast as a whole, both
in the House and the Senate.
the exercise of which has been transferred by the French Community to
the Walloon Region and to the French Community Commission and matters
the exercise of which the Walloon Region has transferred to the